Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

Investigation on childhood traumas, anger expressions and psychological resilience of sexual abuse victim mothers and their children

Yıl 2022, Cilt 36, Sayı 2, 57 - 68, 01.08.2022

Öz

Objective: The primary purpose of this research is to reveal the relationship between the anger levels and psychological resilience of mothers, who were traumatized by losing their spouses in the Soma mining disaster on May 13, 2014, and victimization of abuse, especially sexual abuse. At the same time, the close relationship between mother-child mental health was examined by examining the relationship between mothers reporting childhood sexual abuse victimization (eight out of 118 women participating in the study who reported childhood and adult sexual abuse) and their children (11 out of 90) childhood sexual abuse, anger expressions, and resilience. It is aimed to determine the connection once again. Methods: Information on mothers’ own childhood sexual abuse histories is based on self-report data given to the sociodemographic data form and interview records from home visits. Data collection tools used in the study consisted of Sociodemographic form, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-33), Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28), The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). In this study, relational screening model was used. Results: According to the results of the applied spearman correlation analysis; it was detected that there was a significantly negative relationship between the mothers’ childhood traumas, anger expressions and their children’s childhood traumas, anger expressions. It was also detected that there were significantly positive and negative relationships between the mothers’ resilience and their children’s childhood traumas, anger expressions, resilience, which are compatible with the literature as well. Conclusion: Results of the study shows mothers’ traumatic life stories cause their children to be exposed to traumatic experiences and negative psychological effects. From another point of view, it is revealed that remedial interventions for parental traumas prevent children from experiencing trauma. Therefore there is a need for research on the importance of protective factors in cases of traumatic experiences in childhood and at other stages of life, and incorporating coping and resilience into different psychotherapy models, and preventive interventions to increase psychological resilience.

Kaynakça

  • Levine PA, Kline M. Trauma through a child’s eyes [in Turkish]. İstanbul: Butik Publications, 2021.
  • Walker HE, Freud JS, Ellis RA, Fraine SM, Wilson LC. The prevalence of sexual revictimization: A meta-analytic review. Trauma Violence Abuse 2019;20(1):67-80. doi: 10.1177/1524838017692364
  • Fergusson DM, McLeod GF, Horwood LJ. Childhood sexual abuse and adult developmental outcomes: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand. Child Abuse Negl 2013;37:664-74. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.03.013
  • Fergusson D, Boden J, Horwood J. Exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse and adjustment in early adulthood. Child Abuse Negl 2008;32:607–19. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.12.018
  • Noll JG, Trickett PK, Harris WW, Putnam FW. The cumulative burden borne by offspring whose mothers were sexually abused as children: descriptive results from a multigenerational study. J Interpers Violence 2009;24:424-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260508317194
  • Homma Y, Wang N, Saewyc E, Kishor N. The relationship between sexual abuse and risky sexual behavior among adolescent boys: a meta-analysis. J Adolesc Health 2012;51:18-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.12.032
  • Janiri D, Kotzalidis GD, De Chiara L, Koukopoulos AE, Aas M, Sani G. The ring of fire: childhood trauma, emotional reactivity, and mixed states in mood disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2020;43:69-82. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2019.10.007
  • Nakazawa DJ. Childhood disrupted [in Turkish]. İstanbul: Diyojen Publications; 2021.
  • Clayton E, Jones C, Brown J, Taylor L. The aetiology of child sexual abuse: a critical review of the empirical evidence. Child Abuse Rev 2018;27:181-97. doi: 10.1002/car.2517
  • Collishaw S, Pickles A, Messer J, Rutter M, Shearer C, Maughan, B. Resilience to adult psychopathology following childhood maltreatment: Evidence from a comunity sample. Child Abuse Negl 2007;31(3):211-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.02.004
  • Perez-Fuentes G, Olfson M, Villegas L, Morcillo C, Wang S, Blanco C. Prevalence and correlates of child sexual abuse: A national study. Compr Psychiatry, 2013;54(1):16-27. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.05.010
  • Nelson J, Klumparendt A, Doebler P, Ehring T. Childhood maltreatment and characteristics of adult depression: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2017;210:96-104. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.115.180752
  • Brown J, Cohen P, Johnson JG, Smailes EM. Childhood abuse and neglect: Specificity and effects on adolescent and young adult depression and suicidality. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999;38(12):1490-6.
  • MacMillan HL, Fleming JE, Steiner DL, Lin E, Boyle MH, Jamieson E, et al. Childhood abuse and lifetime psychopathology in a community sample. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158(11):1878-83.doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12070957
  • Clark RE, Clark JF, and Adamec C. The encyclopedia of child abuse. New York: Facts on File; 2007.
  • Behar R, Arancibia M, Sepúlveda E, Muga A. et al. child sexual abuse as a risk factor ın eating disorders. In: Morton N, ed. Eating Disorders. 1st ed. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2016. 149-71.
  • Sneddon H. The effects of maltreatment on children’s health and well-being. Child Care Pract 2003;9(3):236-50.
  • Trickett P, Noll J, Putnam F. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study. Dev Psychopathol 2011;23:453-76. doi: 10.1017/S0954579411000174
  • Ruggiero KJ, McLeer SV, Dixon JF. Sexual abuse characteristics associated with survivor psychopathology. Child Abuse Negl, 2000;24:951-64.
  • McGloin JM, Widom CS. Resilience among abused and neglected children grown up. Dev Psychopathol 2001;13(4):1021-38.
  • Walsh WA, Dawson J, Mattingly MJ. How are we measuring resilience following childhood maltreatment? Is the research adequate and consistent? What is the impact on research, practice and policy? Trauma Violence Abuse 2010;11 (1):27-41.
  • McCloskey LA, Bailey JA. The intergenerational transmission of risk for child sexual abuse. J Interpers Violence 2000;15:1019-35. doi: 10.1177/088626000015010001
  • Testa M, Hoffman JH, and Livingston JA. Intergenerational transmission of sexual victimization vulnerability as mediated via parenting. Child Abuse Negl 2011;35:363-71. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.01.010
  • Wearick-Silva LE, Tractenberg SG, Levandowski ML, Viola TW, Pires JA, and Grassi-Oliveira R. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence. Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2014;36:119-22.
  • Testoni I., Mariani C, and Zamperini A. Domestic violence between childhood incest and re-victimization: a study among anti-violence centers in Italy. Front Psychology 2018;9(2377):1-11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02377
  • Leifer M, Kilbane T, Jacobsen T, and Grossman G. A three-generational study of transmission of risk for sexual abuse. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2004;33:662-72. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3304_2
  • McCloskey LA. The intergenerational transfer of mother-daughter risk for gender-based abuse. Psychodyn Psychiatry 2013;41:303-28. doi: 10.1521/pdps. 2013.41.2.303
  • Serbin LA, and Karp J. The intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk: mediators of vulnerability and resilience. Ann al Rev Psychol 2004;55:333-63.
  • Cross W. A personal history of childhood sexual abuse: Parenting patterns and problems. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2001;6:563-74. doi: 10.1177/1359104501006004010
  • Macias SB. The intergenerational transmission of abuse: The relationship between maternal abuse history, parenting stress, child symptomatology, and treatment attrition. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) University of California: Santa Barbara, 2004.
  • Barrett B. The impact of childhood sexual abuse and other forms of childhood adversity on adulthood parenting. J. Child Sex. Abuse, 2009;18:489-12. doi: 10.1080/10538710903182628
  • Cross D, Kim YL, Vance A, Robinson G, Jovanovic T, and Bradley B. Maternal child sexual abuse is associated with lower maternal warmth toward daughters but not sons. J Child Sex Abuse, 2016;25:813-26. doi: 10.1080/10538712.2016.1234532
  • Dekel R, Goldblatt H. Is there intergenerational transmission of trauma? The case of combat veterans’ children. Am J Orthopsychiatry 2008;78:281-89. doi: 10.1037/a0013955
  • Yehuda R, and Bierer LM. The relevance of epigenetics to PTSD: Implications for the DSM-V. J Trauma Stress 2009;22:427–34.https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20448
  • Bowers ME, and Yehuda R. Intergenerational transmission of stress in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 2016;41:232-44. doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.247
  • Lepore SJ and Revenson TA. Resilience and posttraumatic growth: Recovery, resistance, and reconfiguration. In L. G. Calhoun & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 24-46). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; 2006.
  • Cutuli JJ & Masten AS. Resilience. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology (Vol. II, pp. 837-43). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
  • Shaughness JJ, Zechmeister EB, Zechmeister JS. Research Methods in Pscyhology, Tenth Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015.
  • Bernstein DP, Fink L, Handelsman L, Foote J, Lovejoy M, Wenzel K, Sapareto E, & Ruggiero J. Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151(8):1132-6. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.8.1132
  • Şar V, Necef I, Mutluer T, Fatih P, Türk-Kurtça T. A revised and expanded version of the Turkish Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-33): overprotection-overcontrol as additional factor. J Trauma Dissociation 2020;22(2):36-51. doi:10.1080/15299732.2020.1760171
  • Friborg O, Hjemdal O, Rosenvinge JH et al. A new rating scale for adult resilience: What are the central protective resources behind healthy adjustment? Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2003;12:65-76.
  • Basım HN, Çetin F. The Reliability and validity of the resilience scale for adults-turkish version [in Turkish]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2011;22(2):104-14.
  • Liebenberg L, Ungar M, Van de Vijver, F R R. Validation of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure-28 (CYRM-28) among Canadian youth with complex needs. Res Soc Work Pract 2012;22(2):219-26.
  • Arslan G. Psychometric Properties of Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-12): The Study of Reliability and Validity [in Turkish]. Ege Journal of Education 2015;16(1):1-12. DOI: 10.12984/eed.23397
  • Spielberger CD. (1980). Preliminary manual for the State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS). Tampa, FL. University of South Florida, Human Resources Institute. 1983.
  • Özer AK. Pre-study of Trait Anger and Anger Expression Style Scales [in Turkish]. Turkish Journal of Psychology 1994;9(31):26-35.
  • Reyes C. Exploring the relations among the nature of the abuse, perceived parental support, and child’s self-concept and trauma symptoms among sexually abused children. J Child Sex Abus 2008;17(1):51-70.https://doi.org/10.1080/10538710701884482
  • Brent D, Oquendo M, Birmaher B, Greenhill L, Kolko D, Stanley B, … Mann J. Familial pathways to early-onset suicide attempt: Risk for suicidal behavior in offspring of mood-disordered suicide attempters. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59:801-7. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.9.801
  • Brent D, Oquendo M, Birmaher B, Greenhill L, Kolko D, Stanley B, …Mann J. Familial transmission of mood disorders: Convergence anddivergence with transmission of suicidal behavior. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;43(10):1259-66. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000135619.38392.78
  • Kerr MA, Schneider BH. Anger expression in children and adolescents: A review of the empirical literature. Clin Psychol Rev 2007;4:559-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2007.08.001
  • Molnar B, Buka S, Kessler R. Child sexual abuse and subsequent psychopathology: Results from the national comorbidity study. Am J Public Health 2001;19(5):753-60. doi: 10.2105/ajph.91.5.753
  • Schraufnagel TJ, Davis KC, George WH, Norris J. Childhood sexual abuse in males and subsequent risky sexual behavior: A potential alcohol use pathway. Child Abuse Negl 2010;34:369-378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.08.013.

Cinsel istismar mağduru anneler ve çocuklarının çocukluk çağı travmaları, öfke ifadeleri ve psikolojik dayanıklılıklarının incelenmesi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 36, Sayı 2, 57 - 68, 01.08.2022

Öz

Amaç: Bu araştırmanın öncellikli amacı 13 Mayıs 2014’te Soma maden faciasında eşlerini kaybetmek suretiyle travmatize bir grup olan annelerin öfke düzeyleri ve psikolojik dayanıklılıkları ile istismar mağduriyetinin, özellikle de cinsel istismarın ilişkisini ortaya koymaktır. Aynı zamanda çocuklukta cinsel istismar mağduriyeti bildiren anneler (araştırmaya katılan 118 kadından çocuklukta ve yetişkinlikte cinsel istismar bildiren sekizi) ile çocuklarının (90 çocuktan 11’i) çocukluk döneminde cinsel istismar, öfke ifadeleri ve psikolojik dayanıklılıkları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi yoluyla anne-çocuk ruhsağlığı arasındaki yakın bağlantının bir kez daha belirlenmesi hedeflenmektedir. Yöntem: Annelerin kendi çocukluk cinsel istismarı geçmişlerine ilişkin bilgiler, sosyodemografik veri formuna verilen öz bildirime dayalı verilere ve ev ziyaretlerindeki görüşme kayıtlarına dayanmaktadır. Çalışmada kullanılan veri toplama araçları Sosyodemografik form, Çocukluk Çağı Travmaları Ölçeği (CTQ-33), Yetişkinler İçin Psikolojik Dayanıklılık Ölçeği, Çocuk ve Genç Psikolojik Sağlamlık Ölçeği (ÇGPSÖ-28), Sürekli Öfke-Öfke Tarz Ölçeği’nden oluşmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Uygulanan Spearman korelasyon analizleri sonuçlarına göre; annelerin çocukluk çağı travmaları, öfke ifadeleri ile çocuklarının çocukluk çağı travmaları, öfke ifadeleri arasında anlamlı düzeyde negatif yönde ilişki, annelerin psikolojik dayanıklılığı ile çocukların öfke ifadeleri, çocukluk çağı travmaları ve dayanıklılıkları arasında alanyazın ile uyumlu anlamlı negatif ve pozitif yönlü ilişkiler olduğu belirlenmiştir. Sonuç: Annelerin travmatik yaşantı öykülerinin çocuklarının da travmatik yaşantıya maruz kalması ve olumsuz psikolojik etkilere maruz kalmasına yol açtığını gösteren çalışma sonuçları bir başka açıdan değerlendirildiğinde, ebeveynlerin travmalarına yönelik iyileştirici müdahalelerin, çocukların travma yaşamalarını önleyici niteliğini ortaya koymaktadır. Çocuklukta ve yaşamın diğer evrelerinde travmatik yaşantılar durumunda koruyucu faktörlerin önemi, baş etme ve dayanıklılığın farklı psikoterapi modellerine içkin hale getirilmesi yönünde araştırmalara gereksinim bulunmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Levine PA, Kline M. Trauma through a child’s eyes [in Turkish]. İstanbul: Butik Publications, 2021.
  • Walker HE, Freud JS, Ellis RA, Fraine SM, Wilson LC. The prevalence of sexual revictimization: A meta-analytic review. Trauma Violence Abuse 2019;20(1):67-80. doi: 10.1177/1524838017692364
  • Fergusson DM, McLeod GF, Horwood LJ. Childhood sexual abuse and adult developmental outcomes: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand. Child Abuse Negl 2013;37:664-74. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.03.013
  • Fergusson D, Boden J, Horwood J. Exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse and adjustment in early adulthood. Child Abuse Negl 2008;32:607–19. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.12.018
  • Noll JG, Trickett PK, Harris WW, Putnam FW. The cumulative burden borne by offspring whose mothers were sexually abused as children: descriptive results from a multigenerational study. J Interpers Violence 2009;24:424-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260508317194
  • Homma Y, Wang N, Saewyc E, Kishor N. The relationship between sexual abuse and risky sexual behavior among adolescent boys: a meta-analysis. J Adolesc Health 2012;51:18-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.12.032
  • Janiri D, Kotzalidis GD, De Chiara L, Koukopoulos AE, Aas M, Sani G. The ring of fire: childhood trauma, emotional reactivity, and mixed states in mood disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2020;43:69-82. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2019.10.007
  • Nakazawa DJ. Childhood disrupted [in Turkish]. İstanbul: Diyojen Publications; 2021.
  • Clayton E, Jones C, Brown J, Taylor L. The aetiology of child sexual abuse: a critical review of the empirical evidence. Child Abuse Rev 2018;27:181-97. doi: 10.1002/car.2517
  • Collishaw S, Pickles A, Messer J, Rutter M, Shearer C, Maughan, B. Resilience to adult psychopathology following childhood maltreatment: Evidence from a comunity sample. Child Abuse Negl 2007;31(3):211-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.02.004
  • Perez-Fuentes G, Olfson M, Villegas L, Morcillo C, Wang S, Blanco C. Prevalence and correlates of child sexual abuse: A national study. Compr Psychiatry, 2013;54(1):16-27. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.05.010
  • Nelson J, Klumparendt A, Doebler P, Ehring T. Childhood maltreatment and characteristics of adult depression: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2017;210:96-104. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.115.180752
  • Brown J, Cohen P, Johnson JG, Smailes EM. Childhood abuse and neglect: Specificity and effects on adolescent and young adult depression and suicidality. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999;38(12):1490-6.
  • MacMillan HL, Fleming JE, Steiner DL, Lin E, Boyle MH, Jamieson E, et al. Childhood abuse and lifetime psychopathology in a community sample. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158(11):1878-83.doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12070957
  • Clark RE, Clark JF, and Adamec C. The encyclopedia of child abuse. New York: Facts on File; 2007.
  • Behar R, Arancibia M, Sepúlveda E, Muga A. et al. child sexual abuse as a risk factor ın eating disorders. In: Morton N, ed. Eating Disorders. 1st ed. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2016. 149-71.
  • Sneddon H. The effects of maltreatment on children’s health and well-being. Child Care Pract 2003;9(3):236-50.
  • Trickett P, Noll J, Putnam F. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study. Dev Psychopathol 2011;23:453-76. doi: 10.1017/S0954579411000174
  • Ruggiero KJ, McLeer SV, Dixon JF. Sexual abuse characteristics associated with survivor psychopathology. Child Abuse Negl, 2000;24:951-64.
  • McGloin JM, Widom CS. Resilience among abused and neglected children grown up. Dev Psychopathol 2001;13(4):1021-38.
  • Walsh WA, Dawson J, Mattingly MJ. How are we measuring resilience following childhood maltreatment? Is the research adequate and consistent? What is the impact on research, practice and policy? Trauma Violence Abuse 2010;11 (1):27-41.
  • McCloskey LA, Bailey JA. The intergenerational transmission of risk for child sexual abuse. J Interpers Violence 2000;15:1019-35. doi: 10.1177/088626000015010001
  • Testa M, Hoffman JH, and Livingston JA. Intergenerational transmission of sexual victimization vulnerability as mediated via parenting. Child Abuse Negl 2011;35:363-71. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.01.010
  • Wearick-Silva LE, Tractenberg SG, Levandowski ML, Viola TW, Pires JA, and Grassi-Oliveira R. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence. Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2014;36:119-22.
  • Testoni I., Mariani C, and Zamperini A. Domestic violence between childhood incest and re-victimization: a study among anti-violence centers in Italy. Front Psychology 2018;9(2377):1-11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02377
  • Leifer M, Kilbane T, Jacobsen T, and Grossman G. A three-generational study of transmission of risk for sexual abuse. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2004;33:662-72. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3304_2
  • McCloskey LA. The intergenerational transfer of mother-daughter risk for gender-based abuse. Psychodyn Psychiatry 2013;41:303-28. doi: 10.1521/pdps. 2013.41.2.303
  • Serbin LA, and Karp J. The intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk: mediators of vulnerability and resilience. Ann al Rev Psychol 2004;55:333-63.
  • Cross W. A personal history of childhood sexual abuse: Parenting patterns and problems. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2001;6:563-74. doi: 10.1177/1359104501006004010
  • Macias SB. The intergenerational transmission of abuse: The relationship between maternal abuse history, parenting stress, child symptomatology, and treatment attrition. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) University of California: Santa Barbara, 2004.
  • Barrett B. The impact of childhood sexual abuse and other forms of childhood adversity on adulthood parenting. J. Child Sex. Abuse, 2009;18:489-12. doi: 10.1080/10538710903182628
  • Cross D, Kim YL, Vance A, Robinson G, Jovanovic T, and Bradley B. Maternal child sexual abuse is associated with lower maternal warmth toward daughters but not sons. J Child Sex Abuse, 2016;25:813-26. doi: 10.1080/10538712.2016.1234532
  • Dekel R, Goldblatt H. Is there intergenerational transmission of trauma? The case of combat veterans’ children. Am J Orthopsychiatry 2008;78:281-89. doi: 10.1037/a0013955
  • Yehuda R, and Bierer LM. The relevance of epigenetics to PTSD: Implications for the DSM-V. J Trauma Stress 2009;22:427–34.https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20448
  • Bowers ME, and Yehuda R. Intergenerational transmission of stress in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 2016;41:232-44. doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.247
  • Lepore SJ and Revenson TA. Resilience and posttraumatic growth: Recovery, resistance, and reconfiguration. In L. G. Calhoun & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 24-46). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; 2006.
  • Cutuli JJ & Masten AS. Resilience. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology (Vol. II, pp. 837-43). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
  • Shaughness JJ, Zechmeister EB, Zechmeister JS. Research Methods in Pscyhology, Tenth Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015.
  • Bernstein DP, Fink L, Handelsman L, Foote J, Lovejoy M, Wenzel K, Sapareto E, & Ruggiero J. Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151(8):1132-6. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.8.1132
  • Şar V, Necef I, Mutluer T, Fatih P, Türk-Kurtça T. A revised and expanded version of the Turkish Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-33): overprotection-overcontrol as additional factor. J Trauma Dissociation 2020;22(2):36-51. doi:10.1080/15299732.2020.1760171
  • Friborg O, Hjemdal O, Rosenvinge JH et al. A new rating scale for adult resilience: What are the central protective resources behind healthy adjustment? Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2003;12:65-76.
  • Basım HN, Çetin F. The Reliability and validity of the resilience scale for adults-turkish version [in Turkish]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2011;22(2):104-14.
  • Liebenberg L, Ungar M, Van de Vijver, F R R. Validation of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure-28 (CYRM-28) among Canadian youth with complex needs. Res Soc Work Pract 2012;22(2):219-26.
  • Arslan G. Psychometric Properties of Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-12): The Study of Reliability and Validity [in Turkish]. Ege Journal of Education 2015;16(1):1-12. DOI: 10.12984/eed.23397
  • Spielberger CD. (1980). Preliminary manual for the State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS). Tampa, FL. University of South Florida, Human Resources Institute. 1983.
  • Özer AK. Pre-study of Trait Anger and Anger Expression Style Scales [in Turkish]. Turkish Journal of Psychology 1994;9(31):26-35.
  • Reyes C. Exploring the relations among the nature of the abuse, perceived parental support, and child’s self-concept and trauma symptoms among sexually abused children. J Child Sex Abus 2008;17(1):51-70.https://doi.org/10.1080/10538710701884482
  • Brent D, Oquendo M, Birmaher B, Greenhill L, Kolko D, Stanley B, … Mann J. Familial pathways to early-onset suicide attempt: Risk for suicidal behavior in offspring of mood-disordered suicide attempters. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59:801-7. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.9.801
  • Brent D, Oquendo M, Birmaher B, Greenhill L, Kolko D, Stanley B, …Mann J. Familial transmission of mood disorders: Convergence anddivergence with transmission of suicidal behavior. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;43(10):1259-66. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000135619.38392.78
  • Kerr MA, Schneider BH. Anger expression in children and adolescents: A review of the empirical literature. Clin Psychol Rev 2007;4:559-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2007.08.001
  • Molnar B, Buka S, Kessler R. Child sexual abuse and subsequent psychopathology: Results from the national comorbidity study. Am J Public Health 2001;19(5):753-60. doi: 10.2105/ajph.91.5.753
  • Schraufnagel TJ, Davis KC, George WH, Norris J. Childhood sexual abuse in males and subsequent risky sexual behavior: A potential alcohol use pathway. Child Abuse Negl 2010;34:369-378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.08.013.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Adli Tıp
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Haydeh FARAJİ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL GELİŞİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-5306-6546
Türkiye


Mahmut YILMAZ>
Bir kuruma bağlı değildir
0000-0002-9699-3785
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Ağustos 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 2 Temmuz 2022
Kabul Tarihi 3 Temmuz 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 36, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Vancouver Faraji H. , Yılmaz M. Investigation on childhood traumas, anger expressions and psychological resilience of sexual abuse victim mothers and their children. Adli Tıp Dergisi. 2022; 36(2): 57-68.

Creative Commons Lisansı
Adli Tıp Dergis Creative Commons Atıf 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.
Dergimiz Açık Erişim Politikasını benimsemiş olup, gönderilen makaleler için yayının hiçbir aşamasında yazarlardan ücret talep edilmeyecektir.